Receptors include several large families of proteins, including nuclear, cell surface membrane, and intracellular. Receptors are typically targeted by one or more ligands and are classified as orphan receptors when a ligand has not been identified. Ligand-receptor complexes are valuable drug targets across various therapeutic areas as they are the first step in intracellular and cell-to-cell communication. Different mechanisms of actions are utilized by drugs targeting ligands and receptors, including competitive inhibition of ligand binding, mimicking ligand function, and inhibition of ligand receptor complex internalization or, in the case of truncated receptors, inhibition of downstream signaling cascades.
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The recent focus on developing therapeutic modalities that harness the immune system to develop new drugs for cancers, and possibly neurodegenerative disease, have identified several key receptors and corresponding ligands in the immune system, including PD-L1, PD1, OX40, GITR, CD markers (CD40, CD27, and CD137), and TIGIT. These ligands and receptors are prime drug targets for various diseases, including cancers, neurodegenerative diseases, and autoimmune disorders.
Our cross-functional discovery teams have worked on a wide range of targets in each of these therapeutic areas and are available to progress your nuclear receptor-based project further, whether starting from conventional high-throughput screening or using a structural biology approach.