What are some of the parameters that change in the cuprizone model of MS?
Along with cognitive disturbance, the following parameters have been observed in cuprizone-induced animals:
Increased neuroinflammation measured by SPECT imaging of TSPO, a translocated protein
Decreased 18F-deoxyglucose consumption by PET imaging after longer exposures to cuprizone
Decreased immunostaining of myelin basic protein (MBP) in the brain
Mild neurological consequences, but alterations in the open field testing results
Changes in specific parameters of fine motor kinematic analysis suggesting gait changes
Do sensory deficits, such as visual impairment, contribute to reduced touchscreen performance versus a true cognitive deficit in cuprizone-induced mice?
Touchscreen testing does rely on visual abilities. However, the majority of cuprizone-induced mice showed very specific stimulus-oriented behavior and interacted with the stimulus by the end of the touchscreen testing training, excluding the possibility that the cognitive changes were not because the mice were blind. While we cannot exclude the possibility that the vision in cuprizone-induced mice was impaired, visual impairment alone does not sufficiently explain the findings.
Does Charles River offer other models of MS based on immune reactions?
Yes, Charles River offers other immunization-based models, such as the injection of myelin oligodendrocyte protein fragments or PLP (proteolytic proteins). These models have more severe neurological consequences, but they have not been completely characterized. For example, cognitive impairment has not been tested in these models.
In the fear conditioning paradigm, are freezing or startle responses measured during the training?
Freezing responses indicated as a lack of movement were measured during the training.