Nobelist David Baltimore was recognized in 1975 for discovering which enzyme that a decade later explained how HIV converted its genetic material from DNA into RNA?
Virologist Sir Macfarlane Burnet’s biggest contribution was actually in immunology, where he developed the theory that explains the functions of immune cells. What is this theory called?
Sir Macfarlane Burnet’s theory of clonal selection states that an antigen entering the body does not induce the formation of an antibody specific to itself—as some immunologists believed—but instead it binds to one unique antibody selected from a vast repertoire of antibodies produced early in the organism’s life.
French virologist Françoise Barré-Sinoussi won the Nobel Prize for discovering what deadly virus that emerged in the 1980s?
Françoise Barré-Sinoussi was a co-recipient, of the Prize with Luc Montagnier and Harald zur Hausen for identifying HIV as the cause of AIDS, which emerged in 1981 and quickly morphed into one of the worst pandemics in human history. Through dissection of an infected patient’s lymph node, they determined that AIDS was caused by a retrovirus, which came to be known as HIV. Their work led to the development of new antiviral drugs and diagnostic methods.
Nobelist Harold Varmus was honored for discovering genes described as having a “Jekyll and Hyde” role in cancer. What are they called?
Varmus and Bishop found that, under certain circumstances, normal genes in healthy cells of the body can cause cancer; these genes are called oncogenes. Oncogenes ordinarily control cellular growth and division, but, if they are picked up by infecting viruses or affected by chemical carcinogens, they can be rendered capable of causing cancer.
Frederick Robbins was honored by the Nobel Committee in 1954 for successfully cultivating what endemic virus that, among other things, made parents and children fear
Dr. Robbins’ ability to isolate the virus in tissue made possible the production of polio vaccines, the development of sophisticated diagnostic methods, and the isolation of new viruses.
Salvador Luria was honored by the Nobel Committee for his research in bacteriophages—viruses that can infect bacteria. What cutting edge tool have bacteriophages helped to launch in recent years?
Dr. Luria did some of the seminar research identifying the structure and function of bacteriophages. Decades later, CRISPR/Cas9, among a family of DNA sequences derived from bacteriophages, sparked a new and faster era of editing genes.
French virologist Charles Mérieux became famous for devising an industrial system that allowed for mass production of vaccines. Many of these were human vaccines, but his first successful venture was an animal disease commonly associated with a farm animal.
Australian virologist Frank Fenner delivered a major health proclamation in 1980 declaring victory against what disease?
Fenner assisted the World Health Organization in its smallpox program, and as Chairman of the Global Commission for the Certification of Smallpox Eradication he declared on May 8, 1980 that the program had been successful – largely due to mass vaccination.
Virologist Beatrice Hahn, a longtime HIV researcher, helped discover that HIV originated in which animals?
Scottish virologist June Almeida pioneered new methods for viral imaging and diagnosis. She was the first to visualize rubella and which family of viruses sparked a global
Dr. Almeida used the delightfully simple technique of immune electron microscopy, which she pioneered, to find rubella, coronaviruses and other viruses. The virus preparations were mixed with antibodies raised in animals or from human sources, making it possible for viruses to be seen clumped by antibody
Foot and Mouth disease
Just after World War II, Dr. Mérieux worked on an inoculation against foot-and-mouth disease, and eventually understood that the key was to grow it in vitro rather than in vivo -- that is, in a glass container rather than in a live animal.