Large animals have been used widely as translational models to satisfy regulatory requirements for testing in nonrodent species. We also conduct preclinical studies in the standard nonrodent species.

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  • ROUTES OF ADMINISTRATION
    • Oral: gavage, capsule, diet
    • Dermal
    • Ocular
    • Intramuscular
    • Inhalation
    • Intranasal
    • Infusion
    • Intravenous
    • Intrathecal
    • Intraperitoneal
    • Penile/vaginal
    • Rectal
    • Other nonstandard routes by discussion
  • SPECIALTIES
    • Safety pharmacology
    • Developmental and reproductive toxicology
    • Juvenile toxicology
    • Ocular toxicology
    • Bone and muscle toxicology
    • Neurotoxicology
    • Imaging
    • Biomarkers