Ocular Toxicity Studies

Charles River performs safety and efficacy assessments for all ocular indications. Ocular effects of compounds administered by other routes, such as oral, can also be characterized. These studies can be conducted under GLP or non-GLP conditions, either as stand-alone studies or as part of general and specialty toxicology programs. Non-GLP pilot or proof-of-concept studies, as well as in vitro ocular irritancy evaluations are also available for your early research.


  • On-site ACVO board-certified veterinary ophthalmologists
  • Species:
    • Rodent
    • Nonrodent
  • Compound classes:
    • Small molecule
    • Biologics
    • Cell therapy
    • Gene therapy
    • Implants/transplants

Support Services

  • Specular microscopy for noninvasive, in vivo evaluation of the corneal endothelium
  • Electroretinography (ISCEV, custom protocols, and VEP)
  • Spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT; anterior and posterior) and retinal layer segmentation
  • Tonometry (IOP) evaluations
  • Pachymetry (corneal thickness)
  • Digital fundus photography/video
  • Confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (CSLO; multiple image modes – infrared and tomography for 3D images)
  • Fundus autofluorescence
  • Fluorescein angiography (FA) and Indocyanine green angiography (ICG)
  • Vitrectomy
  • Quantitative autoradiography
  • Ocular and systemic tissue distribution (detailed ocular tissue dissections; radioisotope-labeled, LC-MS/MS, ELISA, PET, SPECT)
  • Quantitative autoradiography (2D and 3D)
  • Enhanced microscopic evaluation
  • Ocular surgery/implant
  • Ocular histopathology
  • Aqueous/vitreous humor collections and biomarker quantification
  • Slit-lamp biomicroscopy
  • Indirect and direct ophthalmoscopy
  • Corneal fluorescein staining
  • Tonometry and gonioscopy
  • Schirmer tear/phenol red thread testing
  • Streak retinoscopy
  • Ocular dosing routes including intravitreal, intracameral, subconjunctival/tenons, subretinal, topical, and systemic